Information from

Key references

Oral Cancer Toolkit

Improve your ability to prevent and detect oral cancer

Key references

  • Brown K F, Rumgay H et al. The fraction of cancer attributable to modifiable risk factors in England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and the United Kingdom in 2015. Br J Cancer 2018:118;1130-1141
  • Field, A. Common oral problems and benign lesions. InnovAit 2011;4,6-11
  • Kalavrezos N, Scully C. Mouth cancer for clinicians. Part 2: Epidemiology. Dent Update 2015;42:354-356, 358-359
  • Napier S S, Speight P M. Natural history of potentially malignant oral lesions and conditions: an overview of the literature. J Oral Pathol Med 2008;37:1-10
  • Scully C, Bagan J. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: overview of current understanding of aetiopathogenesis and clinical implications. Oral Dis 2009;15:388-399
  • Scully C, Felix D H. Oral medicine - update for the dental practitioner: Aphthous and other common ulcers. Br Dent J 2005;199:259-264
  • Scully C, Felix D H. Oral medicine - update for the dental practitioner: Mouth ulcers of more serious connotation. Br Dent J 2005;199:339-343
  • Scully C, Felix D H. Oral medicine - update for the dental practitioner: dry mouth and disorders of salivation. Br Dent J 2005;199:423-427
  • Scully C, Felix D H. Oral medicine - update for the dental practitioner: oral malodour. Br Dent J 2005;199:498-500
  • Scully C, Felix D H. Oral Medicine - update for the dental practitioner: oral white patches. Br Dent J 2005;199:565-572
  • Scully C, Felix D H. Oral medicine - update for the dental practitioner: red and pigmented lesions. Br Dent J 2005;199:639-645
  • Scully C, Felix D H. Oral medicine - update for the dental practitioner: Disorders of orofacial sensation and movement. Br Dent J 2005;199:703-709
  • Scully C, Felix D H. Oral medicine - update for the dental practitioner: lumps and swellings. Br Dent J 2005;199:763-770
  • Scully C, Felix D H. Oral medicine - update for the dental practitioner: oral cancer. Br Dent J 2006;200:13-17
  • Scully C, Felix D H. Oral medicine - update for the dental practitioner: orofacial pain. Br Dent J 2006;200:75-83
  • Warnakulasuriya S, Johnson N W, van der Waal I. Nomenclature and classification of potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa. J Oral Pathol Med 2007;36:575-580

Acknowledgements

Cancer Research UK would like to acknowledge the following clinicians for their invaluable input into the development of the Oral Cancer Toolkit: Professor Richard Shaw, Professor Peter Brennan, Professor Saman Warnakulasuriya, Dr Afsana Safa, Mr Craig Wales, Professor Mark McGurk, Professor Crispian Scully, Dr Nigel Carter, Dr Bijay Rajlawat and Dr Caroline McCarthy.

Medical knowledge and the legislative framework are constantly changing. As new information becomes available changes in treatment, procedures, equipment and the use of drugs is necessary. The authors and editors have, as far as it is possible, taken care to ensure that the information given in this module is accurate and up to date at the time it was created. However, users are strongly advised to confirm that the information complies with current legislation and standards of practice.

Date of preparation: October 2018

Patient case studies

To learn more about diagnosing and referring oral cancer, read case studies from Richard Shaw, Professor of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Liverpool and Aintree University Hospital NHS Trust.

View case studies

Oral cancer risk factors

Some of the risk factors associated with oral cancer include:

  • age
  • tobacco use (smoking and chewing)
  • betel quid (areca nut) use
  • alcohol consumption
  • human papillomavirus infection

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